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鱼鳞片如何变防弹衣?|科学60秒

鱼鳞坚硬无比的秘密

在亚马逊的深处,生活着世界上最大的淡水鱼:传说中的巨骨舌鱼(Arapaima)。这种鱼的重量可达上百千克,是极限垂钓者,比如电视节目《河中巨怪》(River Monsters)的杰里米·韦德(Jeremy Wade)最梦寐以求的猎物。

[《河中巨怪》片段] 经过一场激烈的缠斗之后,他抓住了一条,需要两个壮汉才能将它举起![片段:这里,看那条鱼!看看那条巨大的雌性巨骨舌鱼,有150来磅!]

这条巨型鱼还拥有另一个高级品质:“它周身遍布让人印象非常深刻的‘铠甲’,既可以防止任何掠食者的牙齿咬穿身体,同时还不妨碍鱼在水中灵活敏捷地游动。”美国加州大学伯克利分校(U.C. Berkeley)的材料科学家罗伯特·里奇(Robert Ritchie)说道。他所说的掠食者指的是食人鱼。但根据里奇团队的说法,巨骨舌鱼用自己的鳞片打败了食人鱼,这是最坚硬又灵活的生物材料之一。

里奇团队在实验室对这些鳞片进行了压力测试和电子显微镜研究,发现……[查看全文]

Piranha-Proof Fish Gives Inspiration for Body Armor

Deep in the Amazon lives one of the world's largest freshwater fish: the legendaryArapaima. It tips the scales at hundreds of pounds, making it a coveted catch for extreme anglers, like Jeremy Wade from the showRiver Monsters.

[CLIP: River Monsters audio]

After a dramatically scored struggle, he catches one. It takes two guys to hold it up!

[CLIP: “There it is. Look at that for a fish! Look at that massive femaleArapaima; about 150 pounds.”]

Speaking of scales, this giant fish has another superlative quality: “It has these very impressive armored scales on its body, which prevent penetration by predators teeth yet still makes the fish quite flexible and nimble in the water.”

Robert Ritchie, a materials scientist at U.C. Berkeley. The predators he’s talking about are piranhas. But the mightyArapaimahas them beat with its scales—one of the “toughest flexible biological materials,” according to Ritchie’s team.

After subjecting the scales to stress tests and electron microscopy in the lab, they figured out...[full transcript]

论文信息

Yang, W., Quan, H., Meyers, M. and Ritchie, R., 2019. Arapaima Fish Scale: One of the Toughest Flexible Biological Materials.Matter, 1(6), pp.1557-1566.

doi:10.1016/j.matt.2019.09.014

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posted @ 22-07-03 09:50  作者:admin  阅读量:

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